Wat?! Ugh Terraform State is Complicated Sometimes! ‘url has no host’

As I’ve been working through the series (part 1, 2, 3, and 4 so far), a number of issues come up (like this one), and this seemed like a good one to post too. As I’ve been working through I started stumbling into this error around destroying images via terraform destroy . Now, I’m not just creating them with terraform apply and then trying to destroy them. I’m creating the images via Packer, then importing the state (see part 4 for the series for details) and then when I clean up the environment trying to terraform destroy which shows this error.

[…lost image…]

I had taken the default azurerm_image resource configuration from the Hashicorp docs site that I tweaked just a little bit.

[code language=”bash”]
resource “azurerm_image” “basedse” {
name = “basedse”
location = “West US”
resource_group_name = azurerm_resource_group.imported_adronsimages.name

os_disk {
os_type = “Linux”
os_state = “Generalized”
blob_uri = “{blob_uri}”
size_gb = 30
}
}
[/code]

The thing causing the error is the “{blog_uri}”. Which in general, I’d assume that this should be pulled or derived from the existing image created by packer when imported. But the syntax above just doesn’t cut it for actions post-import of the image state.

Time Consuming Troubleshooting

To troubleshoot and confirm this issue takes a long time. Create the image, which is ~15-20 minutes, then run an apply. The apply, even if most of the creation is minimized to imports and the few other things that are created, takes several minutes in Azure. Then a destroy takes several minutes. So all in all, one test cycle is about ~30 minutes.

The First Tricky Fix

I went through several iterations of attempting to get that part of the import of the state pulled in. That didn’t work out so well. What did though, was the simplist of actions, I deleted blob_uri = "{blog_uri}"!  Then upon terraform apply or terraform destroy I got a full cycled application of changes, etc, after adding the state and on destroy terraform wiped out everything as expected!

Problem Fixed, Problem Created

On to the next things! But oh wait, there is another problem. Now if I setup a VM to be created based off of the image, the state doesn’t have the blog_uri. Great, back to square one right? Not entirely, subscribe, keep reading and I’ll have the next steps for this coming real soon!

Development Workspace with Terraform on Azure: Part 4 – DSE w/ Packer + Importing State 4 Terraform

The next thing I wanted setup for my development workspace is a DataStax Enterprise Cluster. This will give me all of the Apache Cassandra database features plus a lot of additional features around search, OpsCenter, analytics, and more. I’ll elaborate on that in some future posts. For now, let’s get an image built we can use to add nodes to our cluster and setup some other elements.

1: DataStax Enterprise

The general installation instructions for the process I’m stepping through here in this article can be found in this documentation. To do this I started with a Packer template like the one I setup in the second part of this series. It looks, with the installation steps taken out, just like the code below.

[code language=”javascript”]
{
“variables”: {
“client_id”: “{{env `TF_VAR_clientid`}}”,
“client_secret”: “{{env `TF_VAR_clientsecret`}}”,
“tenant_id”: “{{env `TF_VAR_tenant_id`}}”,
“subscription_id”: “{{env `TF_VAR_subscription_id`}}”,
“imagename”: “”,
“storage_account”: “adronsimagestorage”,
“resource_group_name”: “adrons-images”
},

“builders”: [{
“type”: “azure-arm”,

“client_id”: “{{user `client_id`}}”,
“client_secret”: “{{user `client_secret`}}”,
“tenant_id”: “{{user `tenant_id`}}”,
“subscription_id”: “{{user `subscription_id`}}”,

“managed_image_resource_group_name”: “{{user `resource_group_name`}}”,
“managed_image_name”: “{{user `imagename`}}”,

“os_type”: “Linux”,
“image_publisher”: “Canonical”,
“image_offer”: “UbuntuServer”,
“image_sku”: “18.04-LTS”,

“azure_tags”: {
“dept”: “Engineering”,
“task”: “Image deployment”
},

“location”: “westus2”,
“vm_size”: “Standard_DS2_v2”
}],
“provisioners”: [{
“execute_command”: “chmod +x {{ .Path }}; {{ .Vars }} sudo -E sh ‘{{ .Path }}'”,
“inline”: [
“”
],
“inline_shebang”: “/bin/sh -x”,
“type”: “shell”
}]
}
[/code]

In the section marked “inline” I setup the steps for installing DataStax Enterprise.

[code language=”javascript”]
“apt-get update”,
“apt-get install -y openjdk-8-jre”,
“java -version”,
“apt-get install libaio1”,
“echo \”deb https://debian.datastax.com/enterprise/ stable main\” | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list.d/datastax.sources.list”,
“curl -L https://debian.datastax.com/debian/repo_key | sudo apt-key add -“,
“apt-get update”,
“apt-get install -y dse-full”
[/code]

The first part of this process the machine image needs Open JDK installed, which I opted for the required version of 1.8. For more information about the Open JDK check out this material:

The next thing I needed to do was to get everything setup so that I could use this Azure Image to build an actual Virtual Machine. Since this process however is built outside of the primary Terraform main build process, I need to import the various assets that are created for Packer image creation and the actual Packer images. By importing these asset resources into Terraform’s state I can then write configuration and code around them as if I’d created them within the main Terraform build process. This might sound a bit confusing, but check out this process and it might make more sense. If it is still confusing do let me know, ping me on Twitter @adron and I’ll elaborate or edit things so that they read better.

check-box-64Verification Checklist

  • At this point there now exists a solidly installed and baked image available for use to create a Virtual Machine.

2: Terraform State & Terraform Import Resources

Ok, if you check out part 1 of this series I setup Azure CLI, Terraform, and the pertinent configuration and parts to build out infrastructure as code using HCL (Hashicorp Configuration Language) with a little bit of Bash as glue here and there. Then in Part 2 and Part 3 I setup Packer images and some Terraform resources like Kubernetes and such. All of that is great, but these two parts of the process are now in entirely two different unknown states. The two pieces are:

  1. Packer Images
  2. Terraform Infrastructure

The Terraform Infrastructure doesn’t know the Packer Images exist, but they are sitting there in a resource group in Azure. The way to make Terraform aware that these images exist is to import the various things that store the images. To import these resources into the Terraform state, before doing an apply, run the terraform import command.

In order to get all of the resources we need in which to operate and build images, the following import commands need issued. I wrote a script file to help me out with each of these, and used jq to make retrieval of the Packer created Azure Image ID’s a bit easier. That code looks like this:

[code language=”bash”]
BASECASSANDRA=$(az image list | jq ‘map({name: “basecassandra”, id})’ | jq -r ‘.[0].id’)
BASEDSE=$(az image list | jq ‘map({name: “basedse”, id})’ | jq -r ‘.[0].id’)
[/code]

Breaking down the jq commands above, the following actions are being taken. First, the Azure CLI command is issued, az image list which is then piped | into the jq command of jq 'map({name: "theimagenamehere", id})'. This command takes the results of the Azure CLI command and finds the name element with the appropriate image name, matches that and then gets the id along with it. That command is then piped into another command that returns just the value of the id jq -r '.id'. The -r is a switch that tells jq to just return the raw data, without enclosing double quotes.

I also needed to import the resource group all of these are in too, which following a similar jq command style of piping one command’s results into another, issued this command to get the Resource Group ID RG-IMPORT=$(az group show --name adronsimages | jq -r '.id'). With those three ID’s there is one more element needed to be able to import these into Terraform state.

The Terraform resources that these imported pieces of state will map to need declared, which means the Terraform HCL itself needs written out. For that, there are the two images that are needed and the Resource Group. I added the images in an images.tf files and the Resource Group goes in the resource_groups.tf file.

[code language=”javascript”]
resource “azurerm_image” “basecassandra” {
name = “basecassandra”
location = “West US”
resource_group_name = azurerm_resource_group.imported_adronsimages.name

os_disk {
os_type = “Linux”
os_state = “Generalized”
blob_uri = “{blob_uri}”
size_gb = 30
}
}

resource “azurerm_image” “basedse” {
name = “basedse”
location = “West US”
resource_group_name = azurerm_resource_group.imported_adronsimages.name

os_disk {
os_type = “Linux”
os_state = “Generalized”
blob_uri = “{blob_uri}”
size_gb = 30
}
}
[/code]

Then the Resource Group.

[code language=”javascript”]
resource “azurerm_resource_group” “imported_adronsimages” {
name = “adronsimages”
location = var.locationlong

tags = {
environment = “Development Images”
}
}
[/code]

Now, issuing these Terraform commands will pull the current state of those resource into the state, which we can then issue further Terraform commands and applies from.

[code language=”bash]
terraform import azurerm_image.basedse $BASEDSE
terraform import azurerm_image.basecassandra $BASECASSANDRA
terraform import azurerm_resource_group.imported_adronsimages $RG_IMPORT
[/code]

Running those commands, the results come back something like this.

terraform-imports

Verification Checklist

  • At this point there now exists a solidly installed and baked image available for use to create a Virtual Machine.
  • Now there is also state in Terraform, that understands where and what these resources are.

Summary, for now.

This post is shorter than I’d like it to be. But it was taking to long for the next steps to get written up – but fear not they’re on the way! In the coming post I’ll cover more of other resource elements we’ll need to import, what is next for getting a virtual machine built off of the image that is now available, some Terraform HCL refactoring, and most importantly putting together the actual DataStax Enterprise / Apache Cassandra Clusters! So stay tuned, subscribe to the blog, and of course follow me on the Twitters @Adron.

Error “Build ‘azure-arm’ errored: adal: Failed to execute the refresh request. Error =…”

So I’ve been fighting through getting some Packer images built in Azure again. I haven’t done this in almost a year but as always I’ve just walked in and BOOM I’ve got an error already. This first error I’ve gotten is after I create an Resource Group and then a Service Principal. I’ve gotten all the variables set and then I validated my json for the node I’m trying to build and then tried to build, which is when the error occurs.

 

The exact text of the error is “Build ‘azure-arm’ errored: adal: Failed to execute the refresh request. Error = ‘Get http://169.254.169.254/metadata/identity/oauth2/token?api-version=2018-02-01&resource=https%3A%2F%2Fmanagement.azure.com%2F: dial tcp 169.254.169.254:80: connect: no route to host’

Now this leaves me with a number of questions. What is this 169.254.169.254 and why is that the IP for the attempt to communicate. That seems familiar when using Hashicorp tooling. Also, why is there no route to the host? This example (as I’ve pasted below) is the same thing as the example in the Microsoft docs here.

The JSON Template for Packer

 

{
"variables": {
"client_id": "{{env `TF_VAR_clientid`}}",
"client_secret": "{{env `TF_VAR_clientsecret`}}",
"tenant_id": "{{env `TF_VAR_tenant_id`}}",
"subscription_id": "{{env `TF_VAR_subscription_id`}}"
},
"builders": [{
"type": "azure-arm",
"client_id": "{{user `client_id`}}",
"client_secret": "{{user `client_secret`}}",
"tenant_id": "{{user `tenant_id`}}",
"subscription_id": "{{user `subscription_id`}}",
"managed_image_resource_group_name": "myResourceGroup",
"managed_image_name": "myPackerImage",
"os_type": "Linux",
"image_publisher": "Canonical",
"image_offer": "UbuntuServer",
"image_sku": "16.04-LTS",
"azure_tags": {
"dept": "Engineering",
"task": "Image deployment"
},
"location": "East US",
"vm_size": "Standard_DS2_v2"
}],
"provisioners": [{
"execute_command": "chmod +x {{ .Path }}; {{ .Vars }} sudo -E sh '{{ .Path }}'",
"inline": [
"apt-get update",
"apt-get upgrade -y",
"apt-get -y install nginx",
"/usr/sbin/waagent -force -deprovision+user && export HISTSIZE=0 && sync"
],
"inline_shebang": "/bin/sh -x",
"type": "shell"
}]
}

view raw

node.json

hosted with ❤ by GitHub

Any ideas? Thoughts?

When I get this sorted, will update with answers!

UPDATED @ 17:47 Aug 7th with 95% of the SOLUTION

Big shout out of thanks to Jamie Phillips @phillipsj73 for the direct assist and Patrick Svensson @firstdrafthell for the ping connection via the Twitter. Big props for the patience to dig through my template for Packer and figuring out what happened. On that note, a few things actually were wrong, here’s the run down.

1: Environment Variables, Oops

Jamie noticed after we took a good look. I hadn’t used the actual variable names of the environment variables nor assigned them correctly. Notice at the top, the first block is for variables. Each of the variables above is correct, for declaring the environment variables themselves. These of course are then set via my bash startup scripts.

[code]{
“variables”: {
“client_id”: “{{env `TF_VAR_clientid`}}”,
“client_secret”: “{{env `TF_VAR_clientsecret`}}”,
“tenant_id”: “{{env `TF_VAR_tenant_id`}}”,
“subscription_id”: “{{env `TF_VAR_subscription_id`}}”
},
[/code]

Which in turn, what this does is take the environment variables and passes them to what will be user variables for the builder block to make use of. Which at this point you may see what I did wrong. These variables are named client_id, client_secret, tenant_id, and subscription_id which means in the builders blog it needs to be assigned as such.

[code]
“client_id”: “{{user `client_id`}}”,
“client_secret”: “{{user `client_secret`}}”,
“tenant_id”: “{{user `tenant_id`}}”,
“subscription_id”: “{{user `subscription_id`}}”,
[/code]

Notice in the original code above from the Github gist I re-assigned them back to the actual environment variables which won’t work. With that fixed the build almost worked. I’d made one other mistake.

2: Resource Groups != Managed Resource Groups

Ok, so Microsoft has an old way and a new way I’ve been realizing of how they want to build images. Has anyone realized they’ve had to reinvent their entire cloud offering from the back end up more than once? I’m… well, let’s just go with speechless. More on that later.

So creating a resource group by selecting resource groups in the interface and then creating a resource group had not appeared to work. Something was amiss still so I went a used the CLI command. Yes, it may be the case that the Azure CLI is not in sync with the Azure Console UI. But alas, this got it to work. I had to make sure that the Resource Group created is indeed a Managed Resource Group per this. It also left me pondering that maybe, even though they’re very minimalist and to the point, these instructions here might need some updating with actual detailed specifics.

I got the correct Managed Resource Group and changed it to what I had just created, which is the managed_image_resource_group_name property and commenced a build again. It ran for many minutes, I didn’t count, and at the end BOOM! Another big error.

explosion

This error actually stated that it was likely Packer itself. I hadn’t had one of these before! With that I’m wrapping up for today (the 6th of August) but will be back at it tomorrow to get this resolved.

UPDATED @ 18:34 Aug 8th – Day 2 of A Solution?

Notice this title for this update is a question, because it’s a solution but it isn’t. I’ve fought through a number of things trying to get this to work but so far it seems like this. The Packer template is finishing to build on the creation side of things but when it is cleaning up it comes crashing down. It then requests I file a bug, which I did. The bug is listed here on the Packer repo on Github in the issues.

https://github.com/hashicorp/packer/issues/7961

Here is the big catch to this bug though. I went in and could build a VM from the image that is created even though Packer is throwing an error. I went ahead and created the crash.log gist and requisite details so this bug could be further researched, but it honestly seems like Azure just isn’t reporting a cleanup of the resources correctly back to Packer. But at this point I’m not entirely sure. The current state of the Packer template file I’m trying to build is available via a gist too.

So at this point I’m kind of in a holding pattern waiting to figure out how to clean up this automation step. I need two functional elements, one is this to create images that are clean and primarily have the core functionality and capabilities for the server software – i.e. the Apache Cassandra or DSE Cluster nodes. The second is to get a Kubernetes Cluster built and have that run nodes and something like a Cassandra operator. With the VM route kind of on hold until this irons itself out with Azure, I’m going to spool up a Kubernetes cluster in Azure and start working on that tomorrow.

UPDATED @ 16:02 Aug 14th – Solution is in place!

I filed the issue #7961 listed previously in the last update, which was different but effectively a duplicate of #7816 that is fixed with the patch in #7837. I rolled back to Packer version 1.4.1 and also got it to work, which points to the issues being something rooted in version 1.4.2. With that, everything is working again and I’ve got a good Packer build. The respective completed blog entry where I detail what I’m putting together will be coming out very soon now that things are cooking appropriately!

Also note that the last bug, file in #7961 wasn’t the bug that originally started this post, but was where I ended up with. The build of the image however, being the important thing, is working just fine now! Whew!

Development Workspace with Terraform on Azure: Part 1 – Install and Setup Terraform and Azure CLI

Prerequisites before all of this.

Have a basic understanding of how to use Terraform and what it does. This is covered pretty well in the Hashicorp Docs here (single page read <5 minutes) and if you have a LinkedIn Learning account check out my Terraform course “Learning Terraform“.

Beyond that some basic CLI/terminal knowledge, understand where environment variables (as I detail here, here, and here for some starters) are, and miscellaneous knowledge. You’ll also need knowledge and user experience with Git. Most of these things I’ll detail explicitly but otherwise I’ll either link to or provide context for additional information throughout the article.

1: Terraform

Download

You’ll need to first install Terraform and make it available for use on your machine. To do this navigate over to the Hashicorp TerraformTerraform site and to the download section. As of this time 0.12.6 is available, and for the foreseeable future this version or versions coming will be just fine.

Install

You’ll need to unzip this somewhere in a directory that you’ve got the path mapped for execution. In my case I’ve setup a directly I call “Apps” and put all of my CLI apps in that directory. Then add it to my path environment variable and then terraform becomes available to me from any terminal wherever I need it. My path variable export on Linux and Mac look like this.

[code]export PATH=$PATH:/home/adron/Apps[/code]

Now you can verify that the Terraform CLI is available by typing terraform in any terminal and you should get a read out of the available Terraform commands.

For those of you who might be trying to install this on the WSL (Windows Subsystem for Linux), on Windows itself, or some variance there is specific instructions for that too. Check out Hashicorp’s installation instructions for more details on several methods and a tutorial video, plus the Microsoft Docs on installing Terraform on the WSL.

check-box-64Verification Checklist

  • Terraform is installed and executable from the terminal in whichever folder on the system.

2: Azure CLI

For this tutorial, there are several ways for Terraform to authenticate to Azure, I’ll be using the Azure CLI authentication method as detailed in this tutorial from Hashicorp. There are also some important notes about the Azure CLI. The Azure CLI method in conjunction with the AzureRM Terraform Provider is used to build out resources using infrastructure as code paradigms, because of this it is important also to insure we have the right versions of everything to work together.

The Caveats

For the AzureRM, which will be downloaded automatically when we setup the repository and initialize it with the terraform init command, we’ll want to make sure we have version 1.20 or greater. Previous versions of the AzureRM Provider used a method of authorizing that reset credentials after an hour. A clear issue.

Terraform also only support authenticating using the az CLI and it must be avilable in the path of the system, same as the way terraform is available via the path. In other words, if both terraform and az can be executed from anywhere in the terminal we’re all set. Using the older methods of Powershell Cmdlets or azure CLI methods aren’t supported anymore.

Authenticating via the Azure CLI is only supported when using a “User Account” and not via Service Principal (ex: az login --service-principal). This works perfectly since these environments I’m building are specifically for my development needs. If you’d like to use this example as a more production focused example, then using something like Service Principals or another systems level verification, authentication, and authorization model should be used. For other examples check out authentication via a Service Principal and Client Secret, Service Principal and Client Certificate, or Managed Service Identity.

Installing

To get the Azure CLI installed I followed the manual installation on Debian/Ubuntu Linux process. For Windows installation check out these instructions.

# Update the latest packages and make sure certs, curl, https transport, and related packages are updated.
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install ca-certificates curl apt-transport-https lsb-release gnupg
# Download and install the Microsoft signing key.
curl -sL https://packages.microsoft.com/keys/microsoft.asc | \
gpg –dearmor | \
sudo tee /etc/apt/trusted.gpg.d/microsoft.asc.gpg > /dev/null
# Add the software repository of the Azure CLI.
AZ_REPO=$(lsb_release -cs)
echo "deb [arch=amd64] https://packages.microsoft.com/repos/azure-cli/ $AZ_REPO main" | \
sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/azure-cli.list
# Update the repository information and install the azure-cli package.
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install azure-cli

view raw

install.sh

hosted with ❤ by GitHub

Login & Setup

az login

It’ll bring up a browser that’ll give you a standard Microsoft auth login for your Azure Account.

login.png

When that completes successfully a response is returned in the terminal as shown.

loggedin.jpg

Pieces of this information will be needed later on so I always copy this to a text file for easy access. I usually put this file in a folder I call “DELETE THIS CUZ SECURITY” so that I remember to delete it shortly thereafter so it doesn’t fall into the hands of evil!

For all the other operating systems and places that the Azure CLI can be installed, check out the docs here.

Once logged in a list of accounts can be retrieved too. Run az account list to get the list of accounts available. If you only have one account (re: subscriptions) then you’ll just see exactly what was displayed when you logged in. However if you have other peripheral information, those accounts will be shown here.

If there is more than one subscription, one needs selected and set. To do that execute the following command by passing the subscription id. That’s the second value in that list of values above. Yes, it is kind of odd that they use account and subscription interchangeably in this situation, and that subscription id isn’t exactly obvious if this data is identified as an account and not a subscription, but we’ll give Microsoft a pass for now. Suffice it to say, account id and subscription id in this data is the stand alone id field in the aforementioned data.

az account set --subscription="id" where id is subscription id, or as shown in az account list the id there, whatever one wants to call it.

Configuring Terraform Azure CLI Auth

To do this we will go ahead and setup the initial repository and files. What I’ve done specifically for this is to navigate to Github to the new repository path https://github.com/new. Then I selected the following options:

  1. Repository Name: terraform-todo-list
  2. Description: This is the infrastructure project that I’ll be using to “turn on” and “turn off” my development environment every day.
  3. Public Repo
  4. I checked Initialize this repository with a README and then added the .gitignore file with the Terraform template, and the Apache License 2.0.

newproject.png

This repository is now available at https://github.com/Adron/terraformer-todo-list. All of the steps and details outlined in this blog entry will be available in this repository plus any of my ongoing work on bastion servers, clusters, kubernetes, or other related items specific to my development needs.

With the repository cloned locally via git clone git@github.com:Adron/terraformer-todo-list.git there needs to be a main.tf file created. Once created I’ve added the azurerm provider block provider "azurerm" { version = "=1.27.0" } into the file. This enables Terraform to be executed from this repository directory with terraform init. Running this will pull down the azurerm provider dependency. If everything succeeds you’ll get a response from the command.

terraform-init-success

However if it fails, routinely I’ve ended up out of sync with Terraform version vs. provider version. As mentioned above we definitely need 1.20.0 or greater for the examples in this post. However, I’m also running Terraform at version 0.12.6 which requires at least 1.27.0 of the azurerm or better. If you see an error like this, it’s usually informative and you’ll just need to change the version number so the version of Terraform you’re using will pull down the right version.

terraform-init-fail

Next I run terraform plan and everything should respond with no change to infrastructure requested response.

terraform-plan-aok.png

At this point I want to verify authentication against my Azure account with my Terraform CLI, to do this there are two additional fields that need to be added to the provider: subscription_id and tenant_id. The configuration will look similar to this, except with the subscription id and tenant id from the az account list data that was retrieved earlier when setting up and finding the the Azure account details from the Azure CLI.

terraform-main-auth

Run terraform plan again to see the authentication results, which will look just like the terraform plan results above. With this done there’s just one more thing to do so that we have a good work space in which to work with Terraform against Azure. I always, at this point of any project with Terraform and Azure, setup a Resource Group.

check-box-64Verification Checklist

  • Terraform is installed and executable from the terminal in whichever folder on the system.
  • Azure CLI is installed and executable from the terminal in whichever folder on the system.
  • The Azure CLI has been used to login to the Azure account and the subscription/account set for use as the default subscription/account for the Azure CLI commands.
  • A repository has been setup on Github (here) that has a main.tf file that I used to create a single Azure Resource Group in which to do future work within.

3: Azure Resource Group

Just for clarity, a few details about the resource group. A Resource Group in Azure is a grouping that should share the same lifecycle, which is exactly what I’m aiming to do with all of these resources on a day to day basis for development. Every day I intend to start these resources in this Resource Group and then shut them all down at the end of the day.

There are other specifics about what exactly a Resource Group is, but I’ll leave the documentation to be read to elaborate further, for my mission today I just want to have a Resource Group available for further Terraform work. In Terraform the way I go about creating a Resource Group is by adding the following to my main.tf file.

provider "azurerm" {
version = "=1.27.0"
subscription_id = "00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000"
tenant_id = "11111111-1111-1111-1111-111111111111"
}
resource "azurerm_resource_group" "adrons_resource_group_workspace" {
name = "adrons_workspace"
location = "West US 2"
tags = {
environment = "Development"
}
}

view raw

main.tf

hosted with ❤ by GitHub

Run terraform plan to see the changes. Then run terraform apply to make the changes, which will need a confirmation of yes.

terraform-apply-done

Once I’m done with that I go ahead and issue a terraform destroy command, giving it a yes confirmation when asked, to destroy and wrap up this work for now.

terraform-destroy-cleanup

check-box-64Verification Checklist

  • Terraform is installed and executable from the terminal in whichever folder on the system.
  • Azure CLI is installed and executable from the terminal in whichever folder on the system.
  • The Azure CLI has been used to login to the Azure account and the subscription/account set for use as the default subscription/account for the Azure CLI commands.
  • A repository has been setup on Github (here) that has a main.tf file that I used to create a single Azure Resource Group in which to do future work within.
  • I ran terraform destroy to clean up for this set of work.

4: Using Environment Variables

There is one more thing before I want to commit this code to the repository. I need to get the subscription id and tenant id out of the main.tf file. One wouldn’t want to post their cloud access and identification information to a public repository, or ideally to any repository. The easy fix for this is to implement some interpolated variables to pull from environment variables. I can then set the environment variables via my startup script (such as .bash_profile or .bashrc or even the IDE I’m running the Terraform from like Intellij or Webstorm for example). In that script setting the variables would look something like this.

export TF_VAR_subscription_id="00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000"
export TF_VAR_tenant_id="11111111-1111-1111-1111-111111111111"

Note that each variable is prepended with TF_VAR. This is the convention so that Terraform will look through and pick up all of the variables that it needs to work with. Once these variables are added to the startup script, run a source ~/.bashrc (linux) or source ~/.bash_profile (on Mac) to set those variables.  For Windows check out this to set the environment variables. With that set there are a few more steps.

In the repository create a file named variables.tf and add the two variables variable "subscription_id" {} and variable "tenant_id" {}. Then in the main.tf file change the subscription_id and tenant_id fields to be assigned variables like subscription_id = var.subscription_id and tenant_id = var.tenant_id. Now run terraform plan and these results should display.

terraform-plan-after-variables

Now the terraform apply can be applied or terraform destroy to create or destroy the Resource Group. The last step now is to just commit this infrastructure code with the variables now removed from the main.tf file.

git add -A

git commit -m 'First executable resource.'

git rebase to pull in all the remote default files and such and merge those with the local additions.

git push -u origin master then to push the changes and set the master local branch to track with the remote branch master.

check-box-64Verification Checklist

  • Terraform is installed and executable from the terminal in whichever folder on the system.
  • Azure CLI is installed and executable from the terminal in whichever folder on the system.
  • The Azure CLI has been used to login to the Azure account and the subscription/account set for use as the default subscription/account for the Azure CLI commands.
  • A repository has been setup on Github (here) that has a main.tf file that I used to create a single Azure Resource Group in which to do future work within.
  • I ran terraform destroy to clean up for this set of work.
  • Private sensitive data has been moved from the main.tf file into environment variables so that it isn’t copied to the repository.
  • A variables.tf file has been added for the aforementioned variables that map to environment variables.
  • The code base has been committed to Github at https://github.com/Adron/terraformer-todo-list.
  • Both terraform plan and terraform apply deploy as expected and terraform destroy removes infrastructure cleanly as expected.

Next steps coming soon!

Setting Up Nodes, Firewall, & Instances in Google Cloud Platform

Here’s the run down of what I covered in the latest Thrashing Code Session (go subscribe here to the channel for future sessions or on Twitch). The core focus of this session was getting some further progress on my Terraform Project around getting a basic Cassandra and DataStax Enterprise Apache Cassandra Cluster up and running in Google Cloud Platform.

The code and configuration from the work is available on Github at terraform-fields and a summary of code changes and other actions taken during the session are further along in this blog entry.

Streaming Session Video

In this session I worked toward completing a few key tasks for the Terraform project around creating a Cassandra Cluster. Here’s a run down of the time points where I tackle specific topics.

  • 3:03 – Welcome & objectives list: Working toward DataStax Enterprise Apache Cassandra Cluster and standard Apache Cassandra Cluster.
  • 3:40 – Review of what infrastructure exists from where we left off in the previous episode.
  • 5:00 – Found music to play that is copyright safe! \m/
  • 5:50 – Recap on where the project lives on Github in the terraformed-fields repo.
  • 8:52 – Adding a google_compute_address for use with the instances. Leads into determining static public and private google_compute_address resources. The idea being to know the IP for our cluster to make joining them together easier.
  • 11:44 – Working to get the access_config and related properties set on the instance to assign the google_compute_address resources that I’ve created. I run into a few issues but work through those.
  • 22:28 – Bastion server is set with the IP.
  • 37:05 – I setup some files, following a kind of “bad process” as I note. Which I’ll refactor and clean up in a subsequent episode. But the bad process also limits the amount of resources I have in one file, so it’s a little easier to follow along.
  • 54:27 – Starting to look at provisioners to execute script files and commands before or after the instance creation. Super helpful, with the aim to use this feature to download and install the DataStax Enterprise Apache Cassandra or standard Apache Cassandra software.
  • 1:16:18 – Ah, a need for firewall rule for ssh & port 22. I work through adding those and then end up with an issue that we’ll be resolving next episode!

Session Content

Starting Point: I started this episode from where I left off last session.

Work Done: In this session I added a number of resources to the project and worked through a number of troubleshooting scenarios, as one does.

Added firewall resources to open up port 22 and icmp (ping, etc).

[sourcecode language=”bash”]
resource “google_compute_firewall” “bastion-ssh” {
name = “gimme-bastion-ssh”
network = “${google_compute_network.dev-network.name}”

allow {
protocol = “tcp”
ports = [“22”]
}
}

resource “google_compute_firewall” “bastion-icmp” {
name = “gimme-bastion-icmp”
network = “${google_compute_network.dev-network.name}”

allow {
protocol = “icmp”
}
}
[/sourcecode]

I also broke out the files so that each instances has its own IP addresses with it in the file specific to that instance. Later I’ll add context for why I gave the project file bloat, by refactoring to use modules.

terraform-files.png

Added each node resource as follows. I just increased each specific node count by one for each subsequent node, such as making this node1_internal IP google_compute_address increment to node2_internal. Everything also statically defined, adding to my file and configuration bloat.

[sourcecode language=”bash”]
resource “google_compute_address” “node1_internal” {
name = “node-1-internal”
subnetwork = “${google_compute_subnetwork.dev-sub-west1.self_link}”
address_type = “INTERNAL”
address = “10.1.0.5”
}

resource “google_compute_instance” “node_frank” {
name = “frank”
machine_type = “n1-standard-1”
zone = “us-west1-a”

boot_disk {
initialize_params {
image = “ubuntu-minimal-1804-bionic-v20180814”
}
}

network_interface {
subnetwork = “${google_compute_subnetwork.dev-sub-west1.self_link}”
address = “${google_compute_address.node1_internal.address}”
}

service_account {
scopes = [
“userinfo-email”,
“compute-ro”,
“storage-ro”,
]
}
}
[/sourcecode]

I also setup the bastion server so it looks like this. Specifically designating a public IP so that I can connect via SSH.

[sourcecode language=”bash”]
resource “google_compute_address” “bastion_a” {
name = “bastion-a”
}

resource “google_compute_instance” “a” {
name = “a”
machine_type = “n1-standard-1”
zone = “us-west1-a”

provisioner “file” {
source = “install-c.sh”
destination = “install-c.sh”

connection {
type = “ssh”
user = “root”
password = “${var.root_password}”
}
}

boot_disk {
initialize_params {
image = “ubuntu-minimal-1804-bionic-v20180814”
}
}

network_interface {
subnetwork = “${google_compute_subnetwork.dev-sub-west1.self_link}”
access_config {
nat_ip = “${google_compute_address.bastion_a.address}”
}
}

service_account {
scopes = [
“userinfo-email”,
“compute-ro”,
“storage-ro”,
]
}
}
[/sourcecode]

Plans for next session include getting the nodes setup so that the bastion server can work with and deploy or execute commands against them without the nodes being exposed publicly to the internet. We’ll talk more about that then. For now, happy thrashing code!